This article provides a political and military analysis of the Baltic Sea region from the end
of World War II to the break-up of the Soviet Union. This chapter presents a period called the "Cold War", in which two opposing blocks tried to win an advantage over the enemy. In addition, there is a clear distinction between democratic and undemocratic countries. The chapter describes the purpose and tasks of the military blocks, which were based on specific alliances. Studies on the degree of militarisation of the Baltic Sea region were also presented. An important stage in the work in this chapter was to present the Soviet Union's dialogue with the United States of America AP and the impact it had on the region. The information obtained from the research created a geopolitical picture of the Baltic Sea region during the "Cold War" and became the starting point for research and reflection in the next chapter.