In the world, the aquaculture sector is evaluated as highly productive, competitive and environmentally friendly sector with the potential to be developed as an alternative source of fish resources using the basis of inland water resources. The economic breakthrough in the EU and Latvia is related to development of aquaculture sector, where competitive production is one of conditions for economic recovery. The aim of the research is to evaluate and facilitate the production competitiveness of the Latvian aquaculture sector. On the basis of the available data and chosen indicators, the analysis includes and reflects the most important aspects of the Latvian aquaculture sector related to production competitiveness, with particular focus on production in micro and small enterprises. In addition, it provides an insight into the measures to be further implemented, in order to facilitate production competitiveness. The information reflected in the research can be useful in establishment, planning and implementation of the common policy of the aquaculture sector.