Under present-day conditions it is necessary to develop a new concept model of legal regulation of occupational safety. The current acting system of the labor safety evolved as a separate direction in the second half of 1990s and the beginning of 2000s. It is based on the so-called reactive approach, which implicates formulation of detailed safety requirements, compliance monitoring, applying measures of response to detected violations and occurrence of adverse effects. Shift of attitudes to the administration of the occupational safety is essential to rise the efficiency and prevent industrial injuries and occupational morbidity, to improve safety and health in the workplace, to reduce administrative burden for employers and to involve the employees in administrating of the labor safety by increasing their awareness. The changes proposed by the authors in the area of occupation safety would contribute to maintain the positive dynamics of decreasing mortality and traumatism caused by industrial accident and work-related diseases, they would also resolve conflicts and eliminate gaps of the Russian labor legislation, put a new impetus to improve working conditions.