The article summarizes and formulates the main principles of sustainable development. The interrelation of economic, social and environmental goals of sustainable development is revealed. Theoretical views of scientists on the interpretation of sustainable development goals are considered. The analysis of the main economic instruments for achieving sustainable development in Russia, including economic measures to promote cleaner production, reduce risks of environmental pollution, create markets for organic food, taxation of natural resources, insurance, investment in environmentally hazardous production. Indicators of sustainable development are presented: Environmental performance Index, Resource - Adjusted net Domestic Product, and Green gross national product.