The spectrum of definitions of the notion “medical tourism” has been outlined based on the results of the original review, and the authors’ vision of the said definition has been proposed. The WMA Statement on Medical Tourism has been analyzed and general principles for the functioning of medical tourism have been identified. The basic provisions for patients receiving services in the field of medical tourism and physicians involved therein have been crystallized on the basis of the said Statement. The experience of foreign countries in which the outlined sphere of tourism is actively developing, and which have the recognition of quality by WHO, has been covered. Authors’ axioms for the development of medical tourism, which can be useful for any country that is willing to build legal medical tourism, have been proposed.