In recent years, there have been many problems in information integration among key pharmaceutical supply chain players in Saudi Arabia. This issue has resulted in problems such as medication shortage, lack of coordination among healthcare stakeholders, product wastage, and lack of demand information. However, blockchain, as a distributed digital ledger technology which ensures transparency, traceability, and security, is showing promise for easing some supply chain management problems. Local and global government, community, and consumer pressures to meet sustainability goals prompt us to further investigate how blockchain can address and promote supply chain sustainability. This study aims to explore the impact of blockchain technology implementation on the sustainability of the pharmaceutical supply chain. The objectives of this study are to identify the current information system infrastructure in the pharmaceutical supply chain of Saudi Arabia; to examine the barriers and challenges of blockchain adoption; and to examine the barriers and challenges of blockchain implementation. The result of this research is expected to contribute to the explore the role of blockchain in sustainability efforts. In addition, it will help managers, practitioners, consultants and decision makers who are interested in a deeper understanding of blockchain and its implementation and will evaluate its influence on sustainable supply chain management.