The article analyzes the key technologies of Industry 4.0, as well as their role in resolving the contradictions of socio-economic development. An integral indicator of the density of implementation of Industry 4.0 technologies is proposed for ranking the studied countries of the world. The ranking results indicate that the world's economies are differentiated by the level of implementation of Industry 4.0 technologies. This carries the risk of further strengthening the multipolarity of the global economy and increasing inequality. It is proved that the further development of Industry 4.0 may cause the appearance of new environmental restrictions and the emergence of cyber threats. Research methods: methods of logical and theoretical research (analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization), methods of systematization, method of calculating an integral indicator based on the analysis of the standard deviation from the maximum values in each group of indicators.