The relevance of the research topic is due to the fact that human capital acts today as the basis for the formation and development of post-industrial society. It is this fact that has led to an increase in the interest of theorists and practitioners to study the processes of formation of human capital, its place and role in social-economic development. Physical force was the leading factor of production in pre-industrial society, machinery in industrial society, and human capital in post – industrial society.?The purpose of the study is to assess the impact that the quantity and quality of human capital have on the volume of national wealth and the level of socio-economic development of society. The paper analyzes the following on the global economy scale: the sectoral structure of employment, which acts as one of the criteria for the formation of a post-industrial society, the structure of national wealth and the state of human capital. The article presents the assessment of these indicators in the Russian economy.