For almost the entire time the human being has existed as a species, human society has remained in a state that is significantly different from modern reality. So the processes of significant processes of urbanization and enlargement of cities began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, in France in the 19th century, in Japan from the second half of the 19th century, in Russia in the second half of the 20th century, and in Latin American, Asian fears continue until so far. Currently, the majority of the world's population 54% currently resides in cities. At the same time, the level of urbanization depends on a specific region and country, so in Japan it reaches 91.3%, and in India 31.3%. Cities become not only the place of compact residence of the majority of the world's population, but also world centers of culture, art, as well as industrial centers and centers of innovative development. Despite the visible benefits of urbanization, there are a number of negative aspects associated with this process. These include the emergence of mono towns (city towns) or company towns, i.e. settlements that were founded by enterprises in order to provide the latter with labor resources. Such settlements are typical for countries that have experienced a wave of industrialization - the United States, Germany and Russia, and after its completion significantly reduced the volume of industrial production. The result of the completion of the wave of industrialization was a catastrophic drop in employment in mono towns (city towns), a sharp increase in social tension. The solution to the problem of mono towns (city towns) is possible by differentiating the lines of activity of the population of these mono towns (city towns), including through the development of innovative processes in these cities. The implementation of this process is impossible without the creation of an effective system of indicators monitoring the sustainable development of a mono town (city town).