In the article, the author shows the formation of commercial affairs through the centuries since the 17th century. In general, there were no models of this civilization. However, the daily need of people for the services of this industry, created it and constantly increased economic and social importance.?The many years of different economic eras of Russia show us that the political and legal climate of the state, the personal convictions of rulers, the innovations of other states, and economic phenomena of all times influenced the formation of trade.?The article reveals the basic principles of the development of trade, the appearance of the first and subsequent legislative acts regulating trade, tax and credit relations, the state of prices, control and ownership, and the relations of entrepreneurs to this in all economic eras of Russia.