The development of the global economic system is in the trend of large-scale implementation and use of information and communication technologies. Innovative digital technologies are changing the entire landscape of economic relations, creating completely new forms of management and organization of economic entities. The development and use of digital technologies have contributed to the formation of an innovative type of economy, the main drivers of which are the most advanced information technologies: artificial intelligence, cloud computing, blockchain and many others. Entire innovative areas that provide a powerful digital transformation of the economy have appeared within traditional areas of the global economic system. One of the main directions in the digital economy in the manufacturing sector is the development of Industry 4.0. The main task of it is the creation of “smart manufacturing” that can provide a new qualitative transition in the development of industrial relations and building production to meet the needs and requirements of each person. One of the main components of Industry 4.0 is the development and application of robotics, without which it is impossible to fully automate technological processes. It is no coincidence that in the past few years, most countries have joined the process of creating and applying innovative robot models. Sales of robots around the world are growing very fast. In many countries, programs to digitalize the economy have been adopted at the state level, where one of the main points is the development of innovative robotics and the full automation of both industry and all other areas of economic development. Russia has also joined the process of digital transformation of the economy, the main aspect of which is the development of robotics in the country. Goals and main directions of digitalization of the Russian economy are considered in this study. The tasks for creating high-tech industries based on the introduction and application of industrial robots that can provide a sharp increase in labor productivity are defined as part of the digitalization of the production sector. In this regard, modern trends in the development of Russian robotics are analyzed, an analysis of the Russian robot market is carried out, its main parameters are determined: market development dynamics, average annual growth rates, and the main players of the Russian market are identified. Identifying areas of using robots in the Russian economy is paid great attention in this article; areas for their wider application are defined. The reasons that hinder the introduction of robots in the Russian economy are identified and analyzed in this research. Based on a comprehensive analysis, further prospects and development paths for the Russian robotics market are identified.