The aim of this research paper is the identification of human capital role in the sustainable economic development of any country in the changing world. This paper includes the overview of general current trends in the world, influencing on further development of countries and its competitiveness level to each other. Based on the literature review the role of human capital has been outlined and its involvement in different rankings has been studied. The target of this paper is the understanding of development track for the Russian economy through reforms in human capital area with attraction of investments, efficient cooperation with trade partners and sustainable policy of a government. As a result, several rankings have been analyzed and required proposals for the Russian economy have been revealed.